Nana Sahib (born 19 May 1824 – disappeared 1857), was an Indian, Maratha aristocrat, who led the Cawnpore rebellion during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, he was entitled to a pension from the English East India Company. The Company's refusal to continue the pension after his father's death, as well as its generally arrogant policies, compelled him to revolt and seek freedom from company rule in India.
Azizun Bai was a courtesan in Kanpur, which was a theatre of conflict between Nana Sahib and Tatya Tope on one side, and the British on the other. Her house became a meeting point for the rebel soldiers, and she made a gun battery her headquarters to collect and distribute arms and ammunition to the soldiers. She is also said to have ridden into battle in male attire.
This building is where Nana Sahib coordinated his operations around the Cawnpore area. Nana Sahib was the adopted heir to Baji Rao II, the ex-peshwa of the Maratha Confederacy. The East India Company had decided that the pension and honours of the lineage would not be passed on to Nana Sahib, as he was not a natural born heir. Nana Sahib had sent his envoy Dewan Azimullah Khan to London, to petition the Queen against the Company’s decision, but failed to evoke any favourable response.