The Sand Creek massacre was an atrocity in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho in southeastern Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated 70–163 Native Americans, about two-thirds of whom were women and children.
The North German Confederation was a federation of 22 independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants. It was the first modern German nation state and the basis for the later German Empire (1871–1918), when several south German states such as Bavaria joined. The North German Confederation is historically important for the economic and judicial unification of Germany; many of its laws were taken over by the German Empire.
red - the blood that unites all people of African ancestry, and the blood that is shed for liberation black - black people whose existence as a nation, though not a nation-state, is affirmed by the existence of the flag green - the abundant natural wealth of Africa .
Atatürk then embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern, westernized and secular nation-state. The principles of Atatürk's reforms, upon which modern Turkey was established, are referred to as Kemalism.