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ATP and cAMP are two of the best known nucleotides. Nucleotides are organic compounds with a nitrogenous base, a monosaccharide, and at least one phosphate group. ATP is a coenzyme that is considered the molecular unit of currency that transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. It is used in glycolysis, anaerobic fermentation, aerobic respiration, etc.

This picture shows the structure of the nitrogenous bases. There are 2 types of bases: purines, which have a double ring, and pyrimidines, which have a single ring. The 2 purines are guanine and adenine, both are in DNA and RNA. The 3 pyrimidines are uracil (RNA only), thymine (DNA only), and cytosine (both DNA and RNA). Therefore, the DNA bases are AGTC and the RNA bases are AGUC.

The picture illustrates carbon compounds: Carbohydrates are hydrophilic, polar, and soluble with the formula (CH2O)n and include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Lipids are hydrophobic, nonpolar, and not soluble in water. Fatty acids include triglycerides, phospholipids, eicosanoids, and steroids. Proteins are a polymer of amino acids, and includes enzymes. Nucleotides/nucleic acids include a nitrogenous base, sugar (monosaccharide), and one or more phosphate groups.

3 Main differences between DNA & RNA: RNA uses the sugar Ribose while DNA uses Deoxyribose. RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded. RNA uses the nitrogenous base Uracil whereas DNA uses the nitrogenous base Thymine.


"This Double Helix is a scientific model of B deoxyribonucleic acid, which is the most common form of DNA. DNA is a chemical carrier of our genes. It has an elegant geometric structure that allows it to store a massive amount of information. Every organism has its own DNA, and it is our DNA that makes each of us unique. Beads representing Phosphorus and Deoxyribose are 15 mm wide and multifaceted, and beads representing nitrogenous bases are oval and flat, 25 mmX20 mm."


Why is ATP known as a high energy structure at neutral pH? A) It exhibits a large decrease in free energy when it undergoes hydrolytic reactions. B) The phosphate ion released from ATP hydrolysis is very reactive. C) It causes cellular processes toproceed at faster rates. D) Adenine is the best energy storage molecule of all the nitrogenous bases.

Double-stranded DNA consists of two polynucleotide chains whose nitrogenous bases are connected by hydrogen bonds. Within this arrangement, each strand mirrors the other as a result of the anti-parallel orientation of the sugar-phosphate backbones, as well as the complementary nature of the A-T and C-G base pairing.


nucleobase nails! nucleotide bases for DNA and RNA


Basic Components of Nucleic Acids - Nitrogenous bases, Ribose and Phosphate group. The bases are Purines (A,G) and Pyrimidine (C,T,U). Ribose, Phosphate.