The blood urea nitrogen or BUN is a blood test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen in the bloodstream. It reflects how well your kidneys are. When a person is dehydrated, false results might be obtained as BUN levels increase when blood is concentrated. Elevated BUN levels indicate dehydration, excessive protein intake and impaired renal function. Low BUN levels indicate over hydration, liver damage and malnutrition.
Creatinine is a waste product produced by muscle metabolism. Kidneys filter creatinine to be excreted through the urine and the renal function is reflected. Elevated levels indicate renal impairment. The opposite happens for urinary creatinine clearance; during renal impairment, urinary creatinine is extremely low. Measuring urinary creatinine clearance during unilateral kidney impairment is insignificant as the healthy kidney can still excrete creatinine through the urine.
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Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms. However, chronic hyperglycemia at levels more than slightly above normal can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs. Diabetic neuropathy may be a result of long-term hyperglycemia.
Prev post1 of 3Next According to the American Diabetes Association, 25.8 million Americans have diabetes and by 2020 half of all Americans will suffer from this disease. Diabetes causes high blood sugar (glucose) levels due to lack of insulin production or function. It is mainly classified as either Type 1, in which the body fails
Cardiac Enzymes Fishbone Cheat Sheet Mnemonic Nursing Student This is a sheet from my acuute book explaining cardiac enzymes.and explaining the normals and abnormal Na K Cr Hypomagnesemia BUN Creatinine Addisons Dehydration Study Sheets for Nurses NCLEX Tips Nursing Notes Cheats cardiac tamponade nursing mnemonic
Sodium and chloride are the two important electrolytes in maintaining body fluid balance. Normal sodium range is between 130-145 mEq/L while chloride is between 95-100 mEq/L. Correct levels of sodium and chloride in the blood help in maintaining normal osmotic pressure, acid-base balance and nerve impulses.