Exsurge Domine (Latin: Arise O Lord) is a papal bull issued on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X. It was written in response to the teachings of Martin Luther which opposed the views of the papacy. It censured forty one propositions extracted from Luther's 95 theses and subsequent writings, and threatened him with excommunication unless he recanted within a sixty day period commencing upon the publication of the bull in Saxony and its neighboring regions.
Giovanni Borgia, II Duke of Gandía (1475–1497) was the son of Pope Alexander VI and the brother of Cesare Borgia, Gioffre Borgia, and Lucrezia Borgia. Giovanni, also known as Juan or Joan, was the eldest of the Popes four children by Vannozza dei Cattanei. Due to a number of papal bulls issued after his murder, it is unclear whether Giovanni was born in 1476 or 1477, but it was long thought that he was the eldest son instead of Cesare.
Isabella depicted with darker hair, c. 1485Isabella I , commonly known as Isabel "the Catholic", a title granted to Ferdinand and Isabel by a papal bull in 1496, was Queen of Castile and León (Crown of Castile). She and her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon, brought stability to the kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. expelled the Moors, and also sponsored the Columbus expedition to America
47. Laudibiliter Papal Bull. “Laudabiliter et satis fructuose de glorioso nomine tuo propagando in terries”: “Quite laudably and profitably, your majesty considers how to extend the glory of your name on earth. . . ” Perhaps the most controversial object in Irish history is one that may not exist. Laudabiliter – the name of a bull issued by Pope Adrian IV to the English king Henry II in 1155 – granted Henry the right to claim lordship over Ireland.
Pope Pius V (1536-1572) In 1570 he issued a papal Bull, excommunicating Elizabeth I and absolving her subjects from allegience to her. This drastic step was not approved by Philip II of Spain and it exacerbated the already perilous situation for the Catholics of England. Pius V gave his written approval for the Ridolfi plot of 1571 whereby Mary Queen of Scots would replace Elizabeth I on the English throne
Ad providam was the name of a Papal Bull issued by Pope Clement V in 1312. It built on a previous bull, Vox in excelso, which had disbanded the order of the Knights Templar. Ad providam essentially handed over all Templar assets to the Hospitallers, with the exception of some resources which were left to provide pensions to some Templars who had escaped execution and converted to a monastic life.