Isabella depicted with darker hair, c. 1485Isabella I , commonly known as Isabel "the Catholic", a title granted to Ferdinand and Isabel by a papal bull in 1496, was Queen of Castile and León (Crown of Castile). She and her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon, brought stability to the kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. expelled the Moors, and also sponsored the Columbus expedition to America
The clergy feasting in the jaws of a devil The demon seated, turned to left on a papal bull, its left foot in a vessel for Holy Water, and holding a collection box in its right hand. Smaller demons preparing food on its head, flying creatures approaching with the pope and a canon. Woodcut Attributed to Matthias Gerung,Formerly attributed to Hans Weiditz, Germany, 1520-1560.
Exsurge Domine (Latin: Arise O Lord) is a papal bull issued on 15 June 1520 by Pope Leo X. It was written in response to the teachings of Martin Luther which opposed the views of the papacy. It censured forty one propositions extracted from Luther's 95 theses and subsequent writings, and threatened him with excommunication unless he recanted within a sixty day period commencing upon the publication of the bull in Saxony and its neighboring regions.
Pope Pius V (1536-1572) In 1570 he issued a papal Bull, excommunicating Elizabeth I and absolving her subjects from allegience to her. This drastic step was not approved by Philip II of Spain and it exacerbated the already perilous situation for the Catholics of England. Pius V gave his written approval for the Ridolfi plot of 1571 whereby Mary Queen of Scots would replace Elizabeth I on the English throne