Innocent III Papacy began 8 January 1198 Papacy ended 16 July 1216 Predecessor Celestine III Successor Honorius III Personal details Birth name Lotario de' Conti di Segni Born 1160 or 1161 Gavignano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Died 16 July 1216 (aged 54–55) Perugia, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
1198- Pope Innocent III, heir of an Italian count & nephew of a former pope, begins a reign which will reassert the idea that the pope is superior to all Christian kings. He will be ambitiously involved in the succession of the German emperor & will exert the right of the papacy to command orders of monks. Innocent will also order Crusades, the most important of which actually just pillages Constantinople & poisons relations between the Catholic & Orthodox churches.
The Crusades - were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. The Crusades were originally launched in response to a call from the leaders of the Byzantine Empire for help to fight the expansion into Anatolia of Muslim Seljuk Turks who had cut off access to Jerusalem.