Overview of Mechanical Ventilation - PEEP = positive end-expiratory pressure. Bi-PAP can be used for chronic ventilation in patients w/ neuromuscular or chest wall diseases. Ventilator settings: Too high a setting causes weak patients to be unable to trigger a breath. Too low a setting may lead to over ventilation by causing the machine to auto-cycle. merckmanuals.com
Need a brush up on your PEEP? PEEP stands for Positive End Expiratory Pressure - in a nutshell, it's a set pressure that remains in the lungs after a complete exhalation. PEEP is used to keep the alveoli open, thereby increasing surface area to facilitate gas exchange. Here you see bag ventilation with no PEEP and then with an added 5 cmH2O PEEP (via PEEP valve). Every breath recruits ("pops open") alveoli that then deflate on exhalation. Adding the PEEP causes the alveoli to stay open so…
Volutrauma may be caused by a large tidal volume (V T) with (A) or without low positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP). A normal tidal volume with high PEEP (B) may also cause lung over distention and volutrauma. A low PEEP (A and C) may cause repeated collapse and re-opening of the alveoli, which also causes lung injury.
This medical exhibit describes the circulatory system impaired by a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) value over 15. The illustration consists of five images. The first image is a schematic diagram of the respiratory system and vascular network. The second image is a schematic of a PEEP reading. The third image is a transverse section through the thorax. The fourth image is a microscopic view of alveoli. The fifth image is a microscopic view of a blood vessel.