Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince (1513) The quintessential political treatise of the 16th century. Observed the political leadership of Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) who had ambitions of uniting Italy under his control. Stated that politically, "The ends justify the means." Stated that for rulers, "It was better to be feared than loved." Rulers had to be practical and cunning (fox) in addition to being aggressive and ruthless (lion).