Mechanisms of atelectasis. A, Collapse of the lung in pneumothorax. B, Compression of the lung by pleural fluid. C, Resorption of the air from alveoli distal to an obstructed bronchus. Obstructive atelectasis is usually focal. Atelectasis of premature infants, which is caused by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, is not shown
Phosphatidylglycerol is a glycerophospholipid found in pulmonary surfactant. It is the precursor of surfactant and its presence (>0.3) in the amniotic fluid of the newborn indicates fetal lung maturity.
October 2012 - The EMBO Journal Giant proteo-liposomes of pulmonary surfactant, material that lines the alveoli of mammals and allows breathing. Each vesicle is 20-50µm in diameter and contains fluorescent dyes highlighting the preferred localization and packing properties of the surfactant lipids and proteins in the membrane. (Credit: Jorge Bernardino de la Serna, EMBOJ) #NPG Nature Publishing Group
There are around 150 million alveoli in a human lung. 95% of the alveolar surface area is made of squamous (type I) alveolar cells which allow for gas diffusion between air and blood and 5% of great (type II) alveolar cells which are cuboidal shaped and repair the alveolar epithelium and secrete pulmonary surfactant. Pulmonary surfactant coats the alveoli &small bronchioles and prevents collapsing.
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