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The force keeping quarks together in hadrons is the strong interaction, studied by quantum chromodynamics. It acts on particles, such as quarks, which carry color charge...

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zero point field random oscillations permeates all space. They are observed also freezing an ambient a few thousandths of kelvin degree over the absolute zero, implying that their origin is non thermal. Cutting to 1 mm the metallic sensible part of the probe of a common oscilloscope, allows to measure what the animation above tries to show (image credit W. Brown, 2012)

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Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) Elena Long, a graduate student at Kent State University, provides a simple introduction to a very difficult subject: Quantum Chromodynamics.

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Streamer chamber photo of a pion-muon-electron (pi-mu-e) decay chain resulting from an antiproton annihilation. The antiproton enters from the bottom of the picture & annihilates with a proton in neon gas filling the chamber; their energy materialises as 3 nuclear fragments (thick tracks) & several pions (less dense tracks). One positive pion curls tightly to the right in the chamber’s magnetic field before decaying to a muon; the muon forms the spiral at top before decaying to a positron…

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Quantum chromodynamics is conceptually simple. Its realization in nature, however, is usually very complex. But not always.

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Visualization of Quantum Chromodynamics: four-dimensional structure of gluon-field configurations averaged over in describing the vacuum properties of QCD. Derek Leinweber