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Tretinoin-- is the pharmaceutical form of retinoic acid. One of several retinoids, it is the carboxylic acid form of vitamin A and is also known as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). It is a first generation topical retinoid commonly used topically to treat acne vulgaris. It is also used orally to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Its isomer, isotretinoin, is also an acne drug.

Retinoic Acid, a lipophilic molecule and a metabolite of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), affects gene transcription and modulates a wide variety of biological processes like Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, including Apoptosis. Retinoic Acid mediated gene transcription depends on the rate of transport of Retinoic Acid to target cells and the timing of exposure of Retinoic Acid to RARs (Retinoic Acid Receptors) in the target tissues.

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from ScienceDaily

Retinoic acid gradient visualized for the first time in an embryo

Retinoic acid gradient visualized for the first time in an embryo | RIKEN

Figure 3. A Simplified Model of the Regulation of Gene Expression by Retinoic Acid (RA) Isomers. All-trans-RA and 9-cis-RA are transported to the nucleus of the cell bound to cytoplasmic retinoic acid-binding proteins. Within the nucleus, all-trans-RA binds to retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and 9-cis-RA binds to retinoid receptors (RXR). RAR and RXR form RAR/RXR heterodimers, which bind to regulatory regions of the chromosome called retinoic acid response elements (RARE). Binding of…

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Skincare | How Retinol Really Works? ........ Retinol is a form of Vitamin A that is converted to retinoic acid in the skin. It works to repair photo-damaged skin, acne, and other sluggish skin conditions. It helps to normalized cell turnover, increase collagen deposition and bind moisture in the skin. It inhibits melanogenesis to promote a clear complexion and an even skin tone. Amazing skincare ingredient!

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from Glitter Beach Club

New 3 in 1 Best Organic Vitamin C 35% Serum + Hyaluronic Acid + Hydrolyze Collagen + Retinoic Acid. Collagen Booster Helps Repair Sun Damage, Fade Age Spots, Dark Circles, Wrinkles & Fine Lines

New 3 in 1 Best Organic Vitamin C Serum + Hyaluronic Acid + Hydrolyze Collagen + Retinoic Acid. Collagen Booster Helps Repair Sun Damage, Fade Age Spots, Dark Circles, Wrinkles & Fine Lines

from overstock.com

The Biochemistry of Retinoic Acid Receptors: Structure, Activation, and Function at the Molecular Level (Hardcover)

The Biochemistry of Retinoic Acid Receptors: Structure, Activation, and Function at the Molecular Level

Retinol is a synthetic form of retinoic acid, well known for its dramatic effects on our skin, but not without potential irritation. What about using rosehip oi