Louis Riel, Metis leader of the Red River Rebellion and Northwest Rebellion in Manitoba and Saskatchewan in the late 1800s. He was exiled from Canada and still managed to find time to help found the province of Manitoba. Also, he was convicted of treason and was executed in 1885 for standing against the Eastern-run government to support the rights of indiginous peoples in the West.
Rupert's Land, 1670-1870. In 1869 - 1870, the Hudson's Bay Company sold most of Rupert's Land, as well as the North-Western Territory, to the newly formed Canadian Government, pursuant to the Rupert's Land Act 1868. This is the largest purchase of land in Canada's history, comparable to the Louisiana Purchase of the United States of America
During 1869, Settlers were angry at the HBC for proceeding with a sale of Ruperts land without consulting them. Also angry at surveyors, who were laying out square township with no regard of their traditional strip lots. In an effort to preserve the rights of his people, Riel organized bands of Metis to observe and confront the surveyors in the summer.
Captain Chauvin made the first organized attempt to control the fur trade in New France. In 1599 he acquired a monopoly from Henry IV and tried to establish a colony at the mouth of the Saguenay River (Tadoussac, Quebec). French explorers (and Coureur des bois—Étienne Brûlé, Samuel de Champlain, Radisson, La Salle, Le Saeur
Effects on fur trade on way of life -The effects on the fur trade changed aboriginal lives, they had to abandon their yearly cycle of hunting and preserving food to keep up with the demand with the fur.
Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) Farm Lands advertisement, December 1930: By the terms of the Deed of Surrender, which came into effect in 1870, the HBC surrendered its territorial rights in Rupert's Land to the Crown. In compensation, it was granted blocks of land around its fur trade posts. The HBC was also granted almost seven million acres of farm land in the "Fertile Belt" of the southern prairies. Farm land and town lot sales were a major part of their business for some decades.
The Metis people were angry at the HBC who were selling Rupert's Land without consulting with them. Louis Riel organized bands of Metis to observe and confront surveyors who were laying out square townships. One week later, a Metis National Committee was formed to fight for Metis concerns about their land. Also several Metis seized Fort Garry and its weapons. A list of rights were made as a result, along with a provisional government who held order and negotiated agreements for the…