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Detail of a miniature of Louis IX sailing off on his second crusade, from the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis, France (Paris), after 1332 and before 1350

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.Eleanor of Aquitaine-One of history's hellraising queens, Eleanor was first mistress to her uncle, Raymond of Poitiers, Prince of Antioch (this occurred while she was on the Second Crusade--Hubby--otherwise known as King Louis Vll of France was NOT amused), Geoffrey of Anjou, and later his son, Henry Plantagenet (who became Henry ll of England--Eleanor, divorced from Louis, became Henry's queen)...A very busy lady...

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The Medieval period was the time of the Crusades. The Crusades began in 1095, with the aim of taking back Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule. In the end they failed, and they ended in 1291 when the last of the Christian fortresses fell to Muslim forces

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Robert Curthose (1054 - 1134). Eldest son of William I and Matilda of Flanders. Robert and his father did not get along leading William to want to disinherit Robert. He gave Robert the Duchy of Normandy and gave England to his second son, William Rufus. Robert launched a failed rebellion against his brother in 1088. When William II died his younger brother Henry I seized the throne, and Robert tried to invade again in 1101. In 1106 Henry took over Normandy from Robert.

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Eleanor of Aquitaine .... At age 15 she married Louis VII, King of France, bringing into the union her vast possessions from the River Loire to the Pyrenees. Only a few years later, at age 19, she knelt in the cathedral of Vézelay before the celebrated Abbé Bernard of Clairvaux offering him thousands of her vassals for the Second Crusade. It was said that Queen Eleanor appeared at Vézelay dressed like an Amazon galloping through the crowds on a white horse, urging them to join the crusades.

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