Ottoman dental book showing molars infected with toothworms. As early as Babylonian times and lasting well into the 18 century, it was thought that a toothache was caused by worms. The theory was disproved by Jacob Christian Schaffer in Tooth worms?
Cemal paşa otopsi masasında:resmen bir gün uyanacağım diyor
Ottoman army in Iraq, Nov. The Kaymakam (lieutenant-colonel) of an infantry battalion is congratulating the binbashi (major) in command of a regimental flag-party; the bayraktar (flag-bearer) being accompanied by two erler (privates)