Human brain with prefrontal Lobotomy In 1936, Portuguese neurosurgeon. Egas Moniz and his associate Almeida Lima developed for the first time a surgical technique to interrupt the nerve fibers connecting the thalamus to the prefrontal cortex. They drilled holes in patients heads and destroying the tissue connecting the frontal lobes by injecting alcohol into them. The procedure brought to the United States by Drs. Walter Freeman , whom changed the name from leukotomy to lobotomy.