John Calvin. A prominent and influential 16th century Protestant leader who wrote a book called "A Response To Questions and Objections of a Certain Jew". Excerpts include: "Their [the Jews] rotten and unbending stiffneckedness deserves that they be oppressed unendingly and without measure or end and that they die in their misery without the pity of anyone."
Pope Clement VIII. In the 16th century, he blamed Jews for poverty. He forbade Jews of Avignon to sell new goods, established a ghetto for Jews in Rome, banned Jews from papal states, and even forbade the reading of the Talmud.
blessed-margaret-pole - Martyr of England.She was born Margaret Plantagenet,the niece of Edward IV and Richard III.She married Sir Reginald Pole about 1491 and bore five sons, including Reginald Cardinal Pole. Margaret was widowed,named countess of Salisbury,and appointed governess to Princess Mary,daughter of Henry VIII/Queen Catherine of Aragon, Spain.She opposed Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn,and the king exiled her from court,although he had called her “the holiest woman in England.”
1349, Jews were blamed for the Black Plague. In more than 350 towns in Germany all Jews were murdered, mostly burned alive (in this one year more Jews were killed than Christians in 200 years of ancient Roman persecution of Christians).
This map shows the approximate distribution of orthodox and liberal Jews in the German Empire [Reich]; it also shows large territories where neither group predominated. In the eastern territory around Posen, Polish Jews (who had often migrated from lands further east) increased the relative proportion of Orthodox Jews, who were also strongly represented in Alsace and Lorraine, the territories in the southwest (including Strasbourg) that were annexed by the Empire after France’s defeat in…