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Neanderthal, also spelled Neandertal,   the most recent archaic humans, who emerged between 300,000 and 100,000 years ago and were replaced by early modern humans between 35,000 and perhaps 24,000 years ago. Neanderthals inhabited Eurasia from the Atlantic regions of Europe eastward to Central Asia and from as far north as present-day Belgium southward to the Mediterranean and southwest Asia.

Neanderthal

Skeleton of a Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) compared with a skeleton of a modern human (Homo sapiens).

The new species has been officially named Homo floresiensis and it is the most recent living human relative so far. Until this discovery, the only other human species known to have co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens) were Neanderthal man and Homo erectus. Neanderthal man lived in Europe, becoming extinct 30,000 years ago. Homo erectus lived in Asia, becoming extinct possibly 100.000 years ago.

The new species has been officially named Homo floresiensis and it is the most recent living human relative so far. Until this discovery, the only other human species known to have co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens) were Neanderthal man and Homo erectus. Neanderthal man lived in Europe, becoming extinct 30,000 years ago. Homo erectus lived in Asia, becoming extinct possibly 100.000 years ago.

Map showing range of Neanderthals prior to the entry of Homo sapiens into Europe. "They estimated that 7.9% of the changes in human DNA compared with that of the chimpanzee occurred after the split with Neanderthals. They dated the split between the ancestors of modern humans and Neanderthals to 465,000 to 569,000 years ago. They also found that the effective population size of the Neanderthals was small."

Map showing range of Neanderthals prior to the entry of Homo sapiens into Europe. Links to interesting article by smithsonian

September 4, 2014.  The first example of a rock engraving attributed to Neanderthals has been discovered in Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar. Dated at over 39,000 years old, it consists of a deeply impressed cross-hatching carved into rock.

First Neanderthal rock engraving found in Gibraltar: Abstract art older than thought?

carvings, September The first example of a rock engraving attributed to Neanderthals has been discovered in Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar. Dated at over years old, it consists of a deeply impressed cross-hatching carved into rock.

How Neanderthal DNA Helps Humanity |  Quanta Magazine

Neanderthal DNA - Where the strengths of DNA are demonstrated, as well as where the DNA has migrated through generations and locations.

Due to the Neanderthal genome project, we know that Europeans and Asians have Cro Magnon and Neanderthal ancestors. However, humans below the Saharan Desert do not posses any Neanderthal DNA. Now, scientists have created a complete DNA sequence of Africans. They found genetic evidence of an unknown extinct hominid ancestor of Africans not shared with non-Africans.

Evolutionary History and Adaptation from High-Coverage Whole-Genome Sequences of Diverse African Hunter-Gatherers

The Lower Valley of the Omo is in the remote southwest corner of Ethiopia, close to the border with Kenya, in the Great Rift Valley. The site is of immense importance for its hominid fossils, which have contributed immeasurably to our understanding of human origins. These fossils include the remains of Homo gracilis and Australopithicines, as well as the earliest known bone fragments of “Homo Sapiens”, dating from 195,000 years ago.   Found on African History & Spirituality on Facebook

The Lower Valley of the Omo is in the remote southwest corner of Ethiopia, close to the border with Kenya, in the Great Rift Valley. The site is of immense importance for its hominid fossils, which have contributed immeasurably to our understanding of human origins. These fossils include the remains of Homo gracilis and Australopithicines, as well as the earliest known bone fragments of “Homo Sapiens”, dating from 195,000 years ago. Found on African History & Spirituality on Facebook

The entrance to Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia near the Russia-Mongolia border where the remains of a female Neanderthal were found is shown in this 2011 photo released on February 17, 2016. A new study has found that her genome contained DNA from Homo sapiens, indicating that our species had interbred with Neanderthals about 100,000 years ago.  REUTERS/Bence Viola/Max-Planck-Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology/Handout via Reuters

Out of Africa, and into the arms of a Neanderthal

The Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains, southern Siberia, where evidence of a new species of ancient human was found.

Despite the larger brain capacity and the features that can be found in the modern-day human population, Neanderthals are demoted to a subhuman category. Many scientists are beginning to reexamine the Neanderthal evidence and are using disease and diet to explain some of the skeletal differences seen.

Despite the larger brain capacity and the features that can be found in the modern-day human population, Neanderthals are demoted to a subhuman category. Many scientists are beginning to reexamine the Neanderthal evidence and are using disease and diet to explain some of the skeletal differences seen.

ancient greece caves - Google Search

New evidence of Neanderthal occupation has been found at the Kalamakia cave site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula in Greece

The Neanderthals' genetic legacy

Many of the Neanderthal genes that live on in people today are involved in making keratin, a protein used in skin, hair and nails [Credit: J.

A tale of two Pleistocene realms: Neanderthals spread east and west through Eurasia - did Denisovans spread north to south?  The Denisovans, mysterious cousins of the Neanderthals, occupied a vast realm stretching from the chill expanse of Siberia to the steamy tropical forests of Indonesia - suggesting the third human of the Pleistocene displayed a level of adaptability previously thought to be unique to modern humans.

The Vast Asian Realm of the Lost Humans: The Denisovans, the mysterious cousins of the Neanderthals,displayed a level of adaptability thought to be unique to modern humans.

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