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    Clumps of Neurons Help Scientists Study Gut Disorders: Scientific American These neurospheres—free-floating balls of glia (red), neurons (green) and stem cells—were cultivated in a lab from stem cells taken from the intestine or stomach of a mouse. Researchers use the neurospheres to test treatments for gut motility disorders, in which portions of the intestine, sometimes referred to as the second brain, lack sufficient nerve cells to function properly.

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The simple beauty of a human neuron

The retina contains five classes of neurons: photoreceptors (purple), horizontal cells (yellow), bipolar neurons (green), amacrine cells (pink and blue), and ganglion cells (pink and blue). In this cross section of an adult mouse retina, only a subset of bipolar cells, “the ON bipolar cells” are visible by their expression of GFP (green). The pink and blue speckled striations at the bottom of the image mark the fiber layer, which contains the ganglion cell axons that will form the optic nerve

Coloured light micrograph of a 1-week old, nerve cell (neuron) cluster. This cell cluster has been grown in culture. The nerve cell bodies are still grouped together (centre) and the neurites (either axons or dendrites) that will connect the cell bodies to form a network, are beginning to develop (dark lines).

Stomach cells naturally revert to stem cells to repair damage from acid and digestive fluids

Genetic engineering and Embryonic and Adult Stem cells (Definition, Properties, Material and Methods)

This image represents human neural stem cells from fetal cortex. Cells are stained for nuclear (Hoechst, blue), neuronal (TUJ-1, green), and astrocyte (GFAP, red) markers.Corey Seehus, Brain Cells Inc, USA

Retinal pigment epithelium precursor cells Human embryonic stem cells differentiating into precursors cells of the retina. Nuclei are in blue. Pink indicates the presence of Pax6, a protein found in retinal tissue. The retinal pigment epithelium is the tissue responsible for macular degeneration, the most common cause of blindness. This photo was taken in the lab of David Buchholz at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Learn more about CIRM-funded stem cell research: