Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718 – 1799). Agnesi is credited with writing the first book discussing both differential and integral calculus. She was an honorary member of the faculty at the University of Bologna. Some major mathematicians consider her the first important woman mathematician since Hypatia (a neoplatonist philosopher of the fifth century A.D. and the first notable woman in mathematics).
On July 27, 1740, French natural scientist Jeanne Baret was born. She was probably the first woman to circumnavigate the globe, but with certainty she was the first woman who achieved this disguised as a man.