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Staghorn calculi (also sometimes called coral calculi) obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calices, thus resembling the horns of a stag. The vast majority of staghorn calculi are radiopaque and appear as branching calcific densities overlying the renal outline and may mimic an excretory phase IVP. Lamination within the stone is common. Read more: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/staghorn-calculus

What a beautiful example of a: Staghorn calculi (also sometimes called coral calculi) obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calices, thus resembling the horns of a stag. Staghorn calculi are the result of recurrent infection and are thus more commonly encountered in 4 women, those with renal tract anomalies, reflex, spinal cord injuries, neurogenic bladder or ileal ureteral diversion. Learn so much here: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/staghorn-calculus

Staghorn calculi, also sometimes called coral calculi, obtain their characteristic shape by forming a cast of the renal pelvis and calices, thus resembling the horns of a stag. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/staghorn-calculus

Jackstone calculus is the name assigned to the appearances of a sub-set of urinary tract calculi. These calculi have a jagged irregular edge, that resemble the appearance of traditional toy jacks. The calculi have a very dense central core component with bony spicules radiating outwards, hence the name. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/jackstone-calculus/edit

Jackstone calculus is the name assigned to the appearances of a sub-set of urinary tract calculi. These calculi have a jagged irregular edge, that resemble the appearance of traditional toy jacks. The calculi have a very dense central core component with bony spicules radiating outwards, hence the name. Read more: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/jackstone-calculus

Bladder calculi occur either from migrated renal calculi or urinary stasis. Bladder calculi can be divided into primary and secondary stones. Usually densely radio-opaque, calculi may be single or multiple and often large. Frequently lamination is observed internally, like the skin of an onion. Read more: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/bladder_calculus

Horseshoe kidneys are the most common type of renal fusion anomaly. They render the kidneys susceptible to trauma and are an independent risk factor for the development of renal calculi and transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. The kidneys are also orientated with the lower pole closest to the midline, which is the reverse of normal. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/horseshoe_kidney

Urolithiasis refers to the presence of calculi anywhere along the course of the urinary tracts. For the purpose of the article the terms urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis and renal or kidney stones are used interchangeably, although some authors have slightly varying definitions of each. Everything you want to know about renal stones: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/urolithiasis

There are stones and then there are stones! This is a gigantic ureteric stone. See the complete case: http://radiopaedia.org/cases/ureteric-calculus-3

Primary bladder calculi, in otherwise normal bladders, were previously common, but are now very uncommon in western nations. When encountered, the most common cause is due to urinary stasis, including from: bladder outlet obstruction cystocoele neurogenic bladder foreign body http://radiopaedia.org/articles/bladder-calculus-1

Horseshoe kidneys are the most common type of renal fusion anomaly (see developmental renal anomalies). They render the kidneys susceptible to trauma and are an independent risk factor for the development of renal calculi and transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. A horseshoe kidney is formed by fusion across the midline of two distinct functioning kidneys, one on each side of the midline. Read more: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/horseshoe_kidney

Puncture needle for nephrostomy insertion for an infected system secondary to proximal ureteric stone seen on the control image. Urolithiasis refers to the presence of calculi anywhere along the course of the urinary tracts. For the purpose of the article the terms urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis and renal or kidney stones are used interchangeably. Read more: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/urolithiasis

Look in the line of the ureter - spot the stone. CT-KUB is gold standard and widely used, but plain film ( or CT scanogram ) will show an opaque stone, meaning CT not required for follow up purposes minimizing patient radiation exposure. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/urolithiasis

IVP shows a left lower ureteric calculus on control film most likely at the VUJ. See the whole of this great case of a traditional imaging modality: http://radiopaedia.org/cases/lower-ureteric-stricture-with-large-calculus

A pelvic kidney is a kidney that is seen fixed in the bony pelvis or across the spine. These patients are asymptomatic. Renal tract pathology (e.g. infection, calculus) can affect pelvic kidneys and thus the referred pain is not typical for the renal tract and it may be confused for appendicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/pelvic-kidney

The urethra is the terminal segment of the urinary system. Stones can be lodged here and causes severe pain. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/urolithiasis

An interesting case of a prostatic urethral stone, stuck behind a long stricture of the posterior urethra. See the whole case: http://radiopaedia.org/cases/urethral-stone/edit

Sialolithiasis refers to formation of concrements (sialoliths) inside the ducts or parenchyma of salivary glands, and most commonly occurs in the submandibular glands and their ducts. Not all stones are radiopaque. Plain radiography is able to visualise only 80-90% of submandibular stones and ~60% of parotid duct stones, presumably due to differences in the composition of the secretion of the parent glands. Big read here: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/sialolithiasis

Medullary Nephrocalcinosis. Upper photo of conventional radiograph of abdomen and lower photo of coronal CT scan of abdomen both show amorphous, coarse calcifications throughout both kidneys (white arrows) which correspond the the shape and position of the renal pyramids. The patient had renal tubular acidosis. - See more at: http://learningradiology.com/archives2013/COW%20546-Medullary%20Nephrocalcinosis/mednephrocorrect.html#sthash.lmqsAhwU.dpuf

A perinephric abscess may result due to rupture of a renal abscess into the perirenal space, but usually it develops directly from acute pyelonephritis. However, any inflammatory process outside the Gerota's fascia may also result in perinephric abscess. Such kind of abscesses have been seen quite frequently in diabetic patients with calculi and in patients with septic emboli. Read more: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/perinephric-abscess

Calcified fetus: A case of calcified fetus aka lithopedion baby or "stone" baby. This is extremely rare and is due to an old unrecognised abdominal ectopic pregnancy.