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White Hawk lost her husband Big Foot at the Massacre of Wounded Knee, 1890. This beautiful photo of her was taken in 1872.

Quanah Parker,1845 or 1852 - Feb.23,1911 was a Comanche War Chief, a leader in the Native American Church and the last leader of the powerful Quahadi. He was the son of Comanche Chief Peta Nocona and Cynthia Ann Parker who had been kidnapped at the age of 9. Quanah Parker looked, and dressed like an Indian but he had very blue eyes. He was one of the most feared Indian leaders in the west. He died on Feb. 23,1911 at the age of 59.

“Before our white brothers arrived to make us civilized men, we didn’t have any kind of prison. We had no locks, therefore there were no thieves. When someone was so poor he couldn’t afford a horse, tent or blanket, he would receive it all as a gift. We were in bad shape before white men arrived. I don’t know how to explain how we were able to manage without these fundamental things that (so they tell us) are so necessary for civilized society” - John (Fire) Lame Deer, Sioux Lakota…

Iron Tail - Oglala - circa 1915 {Note: Sinte Maza (aka Iron Tail) was an Oglala Lakota man who fought at the Battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876. He also performed with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show during the 1890's and with the Miller Brothers 101 Ranch Wild West Show near Ponca City, Oklahoma from 1913 to 1916. He died of pneumonia on 28 May 1916 while traveling by train to South Dakota. He was one of three models for the Indian Head Nickel designed by James Earle Fraser.}

Quanah Parker, a Kwahadi Comanche chief; full-length, standing in front of tent. Photographed by Lanney. Read EMPIRE OF THE SUMMER MOON.Also, RIDE THE WIND His mother Cynthia Ann Parker was captured by the Commanche att a young age, lived among them for years.

“I am a red man. If the Great Spirit had desired me to be a white man he would have made me so in the first place” - Sitting Bull

Last Lakota code talker Clarence Wolf Guts dies at 86. When the towers of the World Trade Center fell on Sept. 11, 2001, Clarence Wolf Guts asked his son to call the U.S. Dept. of Defense to see if the country needed his code talking abilities to find Osama Bin Laden. Wolf Guts was in his late 70s at the time, so his son, Don Doyle, did not make the call, but said the request personified his father's love of country. "He still wanted to help. He was trying to still be patriotic."

Wolf Robe (c.1838-1910) was a Southern Cheyenne chief and a holder of the Benjamin Harrison Peace Medal. During the late 1870s he was forced to leave the open plains and relocate his tribe on to the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Reservation in Indian Territory. He was awarded the Benjamin Harrison Peace Medal in 1890 for his assistance in the Cherokee Commission.