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Torus fractures (also known as buckle fractures) are incomplete fractures of the shaft of a long bone that is characterised by bulging of the cortex. They usually result from trabecular compression from an axial loading force (along long axis of bone). Usually seen in children, frequently involving the distal radial metaphysis. A subtle or obvious deformity or buckle of the cortex may be evident.

Greenstick fractures are incomplete fractures of long bones and are usually seen in young children, more commonly less than 10 years of age. They are commonly mid-diaphyseal, affecting the forearm and lower leg. They are distinct from torus fractures.