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January 10, 49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. The war ended Rome's republican era with Caesar being named "perpetual dictator."

Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, known as Caligula, 37–41; Julio-Claudian Roman Marble Source: Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, known as Caligula, The [Roman] (14.37) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

NICOMEDES IV OF BITHYNIA was king of a region now in Turkey from c. 94 BC to 74 BC, during which he had an affair with Julius Caesar. Seutonius writes of Caesar, "There was no stain on his reputation for chastity except his intimacy with King Nicomedes, but that was a deep & lasting reproach, which laid him open to insults from every quarter. I say nothing of the notorious lines of Licinius Calvus: Whate'er Bithynia had, & Caesar's paramour. I pass over, too, the invectives of Dolabella."

The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being founded in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the split of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 410 AD, and barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. The Senate of the West Roman Empire…