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January 10, 49 BC – Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. The war ended Rome's republican era with Caesar being named "perpetual dictator."

Gaius Julius Caesar. 'Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.' -Wikipedia

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Julius Caesar unit for elementary

Giulio Cesare per unità elementare

Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BC). Beware the Ides of March! The last and greatest of the Roman Dictators. He was named "dictator in perpetuity", or in his case, 'dictator for the remaining two months of his life'.

NICOMEDES IV OF BITHYNIA was king of a region now in Turkey from c. 94 BC to 74 BC, during which he had an affair with Julius Caesar. Seutonius writes of Caesar, "There was no stain on his reputation for chastity except his intimacy with King Nicomedes, but that was a deep & lasting reproach, which laid him open to insults from every quarter. I say nothing of the notorious lines of Licinius Calvus: Whate'er Bithynia had, & Caesar's paramour. I pass over, too, the invectives of Dolabella."

The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being founded in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the split of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 410 AD, and barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. The Senate of the West Roman Empire…

Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, known as Caligula, 37–41; Julio-Claudian Roman Marble Source: Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus, known as Caligula, The [Roman] (14.37) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

MAMURRA (arch named after him pictured) was a Roman military officer who served under Julius Caesar, according to Valerius Catullus in more ways than one. Among the engineering feats achieved by Caesar's army during the time when Mamurra served him were the rapid construction of a bridge over the Rhine in 55 BC, a new kind of ship for the second expedition to Britain in 54 BC, & the double surrounding of Alesia in Gaul in 52 BC. Seutonius will later write that, "Valerius Catullus, as Caesar…