Over the years Eartha White operated a department store, a taxi service, and a steam laundry, and was licensed as a real estate broker, a census taker and a social worker. Known as the Angel of Mercy for her lifetime of humanitarian and civic service, Eartha White served the sick during the Spanish American War, was the only woman member of a sixty-member inter-racial War Camp Community Service Conference during World War I, served as a member of President Wilson's White House Conference, and...
One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866-1928 - Matthew J. Mancini - Google Books. Convict leasing was a system of penal labor practiced in the Southern United States, beginning with the emancipation of slaves at the end of the American Civil War in 1865, peaking around 1880, and officially ending in the last state, Alabama, in 1928. It persisted in various forms until World War II.
Viola Gregg Liuzzo (1925-1965) was the first white female civil rights activist killed during the American civil rights movement. She was horrified by the images of the “Bloody Sunday” voting rights march in Alabama in March 1965. Therefore, she traveled to Selma, saying the struggle "was everybody's fight". While shuttling marchers in her car, she was shot and murdered by a Ku Klux Klan member. One of four Klansmen in the car was Gary Thomas Rowe, Jr. who turned out to be a FBI informant.
"I was the first Black, female president in one hundred and seven years at Spelman College. I'm proud of the sisterhood we have created - it is about connectedness. We create a new family for our women by treating one another as if we were from the same womb." [Dr. Johnetta Cole, 65; Image is from Joyce Tenneson's best-selling book Wise Women.]
Congress passed the first Enforcement Act which May 31, 1870 Congress passed the first Enforcement Act which provided stiff penalties for public officials and private citizens who deprived citizens of the suffrage and civil rights. The measure authorized the use of the U.S. Army to protect the rights of Blacks.
Biochemist Florence Barbara Seibert (1897-1991) developed the skin test for tuberculosis. After graduating from Goucher College, she worked as a chemist during World War I and then went to Yale University, where she earned a Ph.D. and made important discoveries about the ability of some bacteria to survive distillation techniques and therefore contaminate intravenous injections. During the 1930s, she taught at University of Pennsylvania and developed the tuberculosis skin reaction test,
JOHN HOPE (1st Black president of Morehouse College in Atlanta, was affiliated with Spelman and Atlanta University under his leadership, was a founder of the Niagara Movement, served as YMCA secretary working with black solders in France during and after World War I, member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, his wife founded the Neighborhood Union outreach program in Atlanta)
"Rhineland Bastard" was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe Afro-German children of mixed German and African parentage, who were fathered by Africans serving as French colonial troops occupying the Rhineland after World War I. Under Nazism's racial theories, these children were considered inferior to "pure Aryans" and consigned to compulsory sterilization.