Ernest Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961). His first novel was The Sun Also Rises (1926). He wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls in 1940. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea (1952), Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes. Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West, Florida and Cuba, and in 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide in the summer of 1961.