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“A ‘reader’ in a cigar factory” By Lewis Hine, unknown location, 1909 Spanish speaking cigar makers in Florida and eastern European cigar makers in New York City sometimes pooled their wages to hire another worker to read newspapers or political tracts aloud while they worked. While this tradition was unique to cigar-making, workers in other trades also found ways to make the time pass more quickly by singing, playing practical jokes, and talking.

“Demonstration of protest and mourning for Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire of March 25, 1911”

“Bibb Mill No. 1, Macon, Ga. Many youngsters here. Some boys and girls were so small they had to climb up on to the spinning frame to mend broken threads and  to put back the empty bobbins”

“X-Rays showing the condition of the patient before operating are studied by Dr. Anita Figueredo, an American woman surgeon, who practices in a government-operated hospital in Washington, the U.S. capital. Outstanding among U.S. women, who by greater numbers every year are taking their places in professions and occupations formerly open only to men, Dr. Figueredo received her medical education at Long Island Medical College near New York City and for some time was a resident surgeon in a New…

1848 advertising letterhead for E. Goodwin & Brother's Spanish mixed smoking tobacco.