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The nitrogen and hydrogen atoms shown in blue on each molecule show where these molecules join on to the deoxyribose. In each case, the hydrogen is lost together with the -OH group on the 1' carbon atom of the sugar. This is a condensation reaction - two molecules joining together with the loss of a small one (not necessarily water).

DNA consists of two long, twisted chains made up of nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains one base, one phosphate molecule and the sugar molecule deoxyribose. The bases in DNA nucleotides are adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine.

The intensity of blue shows the severity of ozone depletion above Antarctica in September 2010. Atom for atom, bromine atoms are 40-100 times more destructive in the ozone layer than chlorine atoms. Reactions involving bromine are responsible for up to half of the loss of ozone above Antarctica. The largest source of ozone-depleting bromine is methyl bromide. Methyl bromide's main use is as a fumigant. About 30% of the bromine in the atmosphere comes from human activities, the rest is…

Repairing DNA - Like a watch wrapped around a wrist, a special enzyme encircles the double helix to repair a broken strand of DNA. Without molecules that can mend such breaks, cells can malfunction, die, or become cancerous.

/85/ Astatine occurs in vanishingly small quantities in the natural decay chains of uranium and thorium minerals. can't see any of it in this rock, but a few atoms are (probably) there from time to time.

Buckminsterfullerene - a spherical fullerene molecule with the formula C60. It has a cage-like fused-ring structure (Truncated icosahedron) resembling a soccer ball, made of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons, with a carbon atom at each vertex of each polygon and a bond along each polygon edge. The name is a homage to Buckminster Fuller, as C60 resembles his trademark geodesic domes.