A cuneiform tablet from Nippur in Iraq dated to 2000 BC indicates the names of strings on the lyre and represents the earliest known example of music notation. Although these tablets were fragmentary, these tablets represent the earliest melodies found anywhere in the world.
Babylonian Map - 600 BCE This artifact was discovered in Iraq close to the Euphrates river in the late 1800s and first published (or written about) in 1899. It has been dated to around 600 BCE. This was the oldest known map for several decades until the Nippur map (see above) was finally published. The Babylonian Map is currently in the British Museum.