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  • Alexis Felicilda

    New roots Plants from stem Cuttings. Really great information!!! I really need to learn how to do this!

  • Jeremy Kirouac

    Plant propagation from cuttings

  • Vickie Anderson

    [New roots & Plants from stem Cuttings. Really great information!!!] ... propagation from existing plants - smart, smart, smart

  • Missy

    Propagate Instructions: === ==°°1. The new plant will be identical to the parent plant. For example, if the parent plant has variegated (multi-colored) foliage, the new plant grown from the cutting will have the same foliage. If the parent plant is female (as a holly or ginkgo might be), the new plant will also be female. Propagating a plant by cuttings will allow you to keep the special characteristics of that plant. Plants grown from seed will often be different from the parent plant and from each other.°° *2. Propagating a new plant via cuttings avoids the difficulties of propagating by seed. For example, by using cuttings you could propagate a young tree that has not yet flowered (and thus has not yet produced seed), a male tree, or a sterile plant such as a navel orange. Additionally, some seeds are difficult to germinate, taking two to three years for the seedling to appear.° *3. A new plant grown from a cutting will frequently mature faster and flower sooner than a plant grown from a seed... ==Types of Cuttings= Cuttings can be made from any part of the plant. Most frequently, however, either a stem or leaf is used. A stem cutting includes a piece of stem plus any attached leaves or buds. Thus, the stem cutting only needs to form new roots to be a complete, independent plant. A leaf cutting uses just the leaf, so both new roots and new stems must be formed to create a new plant. =Stem Cuttings= Stem cuttings can be taken from both herbaceous plants (e.g., garden flowers and houseplants) and woody trees and shrubs. Because the new growth of trees and shrubs hardens as the summer progresses, cuttings taken at different times of the year vary in their ability to form roots. Softwood and herbaceous cuttings are the most likely to develop roots and become independent plants, hardwood cuttings the least likely.. =1. Herbaceous= Stem cuttings from herbaceous plants can be taken any time the plant is actively growing. ==2. Softwood= Softwood cuttings are prepared from soft, succulent new growth of woody plants just as it begins to harden (typically May through July). Shoots at the softwood stage will snap easily when bent. The youngest leaves have not yet reached their mature size.°° ==3. Semi-hardwood== **Semi-hardwood cuttings are taken from the current season's growth after the wood has matured. The wood is firm and all leaves are full size. This occurs in mid-July to early fall for most plants. Many broadleaf evergreens (e.g., boxwood, holly, rhododendron) can be propagated by semi-hardwood cuttings.°°**4. Hardwood Hardwood cuttings are prepared from shoots that grew the previous summer. They are cut in winter or early spring while the plant is still dormant. The wood is firm and does not bend easily. Some deciduous shrubs and needled evergreens will root from hardwood cuttings.°° =Leaf Cuttings= Prepare by taking a single leaf from the plant. This leaf must generate not only new roots, but new shoots as well. The leaf used for propagation usually does not become part of the new plant, but disintegrates after the new plant is formed. Only a limited number of plants have the ability to produce new roots and shoots from just a leaf.°° =Root Cutting..   =Propagation Basics= *..To successfully propagate plants from cuttings, a number of challenges must be overcome. Once a cutting is severed from the parent plant, it can no longer take up water, and excessive water loss will result in death. The wound from the cut makes it susceptible to diseases. New roots must be formed as rapidly as possible if the new plant is to survive. =Decreasing Water Loss= *Start with cuttings that contain as much water as possible. Water the plant well the day before and take the cutting before the heat of the day reduces water content.. °°Once the cutting is harvested, excessive water loss must be prevented. To minimize water loss:° *1. Process the cutting immediately. If this is not possible, stand the cut end in water or place the cutting in a plastic bag with a damp paper towel and store out of direct sun. If the plant is frost-tolerant, store the bagged cutting in the refrigerator. *2. For a stem cutting, remove some of the leaves. Most of the water will be lost through the leaves, so by decreasing the leaf surface you also decrease the amount of water loss. A general rule of thumb is to remove 1/2 to 2/3 of the leaves. Cut remaining leaves in half if they are large. *3. Once the cutting has been prepared and placed in the rooting mix, enclose the pot in a plastic bag. Insert straws or wooden sticks around the edge of the pot to hold the bag away from the cutting. Place the pot in a bright area, but out of direct sunlight, so the leaves will receive the light they need but the plant will not get overly hot. The plastic bag insures that humidity around the leaves remains high, which slows the rate of water loss... =Preventing Disease= **Take cuttings only from healthy plants. To prevent the spread of disease, use clean tools and pots (clean with 10% bleach, rinse, and let dry thoroughly). Use fresh soilless potting mix since garden soil can harbor plant diseases. ..Encouraging Root Formation.. **Just like leaves, the roots of plants need air to live. Rooting mix that is continuously waterlogged is devoid of air and cuttings will rot rather than form roots. A mixture of 50% vermiculite/50% perlite holds sufficient air and water to support good root growth, but any well-drained soilless potting mix is acceptable. If your cuttings frequently rot before they root, you know the mix is staying too wet. Add vermiculite or perlite to increase its air- holding capacity... **Cuttings use energy to form new roots. If the cutting has leaves, most of the energy comes from photosynthesis. Expose these cuttings to bright light, but not direct sunlight, during the rooting period. If you use hardwood cuttings that have no leaves, the energy will come from reserves stored in the woody stem. For best results, select shoots that are robust for the species. Since you want all the energy to go into the new roots, make sure you cut off any flowers or fruits that would compete for energy... ***°°Auxin, a naturally occurring plant hormone, stimulates root formation. Several synthetic forms of auxin are sold as "rooting hormone." Though some plants will root readily without treatment, application of rooting hormone to the base of the cutting will often improve your chance for success. Two synthetic auxins, IBA (indolebutyric acid) and NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) are most frequently used. They are available in several concentrations and in both liquid and powder form. 1,000 ppm (0.1%) is used most often for herbaceous and softwood cuttings; 3,000 ppm (0.3%) and 8,000 ppm (0.8%) are used for semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings. *To use rooting hormone, place the amount needed in a separate container. Any material that remains after treating the cuttings should be discarded, not returned to the original container. These precautions will prevent contamination of the entire bottle of rooting hormone.. *Cuttings will root more quickly and reliably in warm rooting mix. Keep your cuttings between 65°F and 75°F, avoiding excessive heat. If your area is too cold, consider a heating mat or cable especially designed for this purpose.° *How to Make Herbaceous and Softwood Stem Cuttings. Many houseplants, annuals, perennials, and woody plants can be propagated by stem cuttings when they are in active growth and the stems are soft. 1. Cut off a piece of stem, 2-6 inches long. There should be at least three sets of leaves on the cutting. *2. Trim the cutting in the following way: a. Make the bottom cut just below a node (a node is where the leaf and/or the bud joins the stem).. b. Remove 1/2 to 2/3 of the leaves, starting from the bottom of the cutting. Cut large leaves in half. c. Remove all flowers, flower buds, and fruit. *3. Dip the lower inch of the cutting in rooting hormone. *4. In a pot of damp, but drained, rooting mix, make a hole for the cutting using a pencil. Put the cutting in the hole and firm the rooting mix around it. If any leaves are touching the surface of the mix, trim them back. Several cuttings can be placed in the same pot as long as their leaves do not touch. *5. Enclose the pot in a plastic bag, making sure the bag does not touch the leaves.. **6. Place the pot in a warm, bright spot but out of direct sunlight. Every few days, check the rooting mix to make sure it is damp, and water as necessary. Discard any water that collects in the bottom of the bag.. *7. After two or three weeks, check to see if roots have formed by working your hand under the cutting and gently lifting . If no roots have formed, or if they are very small, firm the cutting back into the mix, rebag, and check for roots again in one to two weeks.... ==8. Once roots have formed, slowly decrease the humidity around the plant by untying the plastic bag and then opening it a little more each day. When it is growing well without a plastic bag, pot in a good quality potting mix and move to its permanent location... **Follow the same steps as described for herbaceous cuttings. Semi-hardwood cuttings may need a higher level of rooting hormone and may take longer to form roots. Wounding the base of the cutting sometimes stimulates root initiation °° Take hardwood cuttings in winter or early spring. Deciduous plants (those that lose their leaves every winter) have no leaves at

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