”Three different Turks”. Ca. 1880, Late-Ottoman Empire. From left to right: a ‘başıbozuk’ (irregular soldier of the Ottoman army), a beggar (holding up his left hand) and – probably - a lower-rank military of the regular army, on leave.
Ottoman mountaineer irregulars, bashi bazouks, in the late 19th century. Date 1896, by Edwin Munsell Bliss, 1848-1919. Bashi-bazouk or bashibazouk (Turkish literally "damaged head", meaning "free headed", "leaderless", "disorderly") was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army. Particularly noted for their lack of discipline.