Yamada Torajiro (1866-1957) in traditional Ottoman, an important pioneer in the history of Turkish-Japanese relations and enamored with the everyday life and beauties of İstanbul, Torajirō remained in the imperial capital for almost twenty years, was witness to the history of the Hamidian era of autocratic conservatism and the subsequent dramatic transition to constitutionalism that came with the Young Turk revolution of 1908. Oriental Costumes, Ottomans Costume
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The shoemaker (late 19th century). Jan Matzeliger, born in 1852, immigrated to the US "at age 18 and went to work in a shoe factory in Philadelphia. Shoes then were hand made, a slow tedious process. Jan Matzeliger helped revolutionize the shoe industry by developing a shoe lasting machine that would attach the sole to the shoe in one minute."
Italian History ~ The children of King Vittorio Emanuele III. of Italy
Abdulhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî, Turkish: İkinci Abdülhamit) (22 September 1842 – 10 February 1918) was was the 99th caliph of Islam and the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was the last Sultan to exert effective control over the Ottoman Empire.
WARRIORS: Armenian women, 1895. (To the right, Eghisapet Sultanian, great grandmother of musician Derek Sherinian during the 1895 Hamidian massacres, when the Armenians of Zeitun (modern Süleymanlı), fearing the prospect of massacre, took up arms to defend themselves from Ottoman troops.)
The rulers made a profit off the faction rivalries. The scholars were happy with the sultans, they were stable. Once the empire expanded, the sultans lost their local connections. Viziers, like the one shown above, held powerful positions. The rulers would involve their sons in their careers. Imperial succession ultimately weakened the empire.