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    • Vincent Pardieu - Field & Conservation Gemology

      Edward de Woodstock aka "The Black Prince" Illustration from Cassell (1902)

    • Sandra Corona

      Edward the Black Prince, published circa 1902, Illustration from Cassell's History of England - Century Edition

    • Bill Dawson

      August 26, 1346: Edward the Black Prince, sixteen, commands a wing of the English army to victory over France at the Battle of Crécy. After the battle King Edward III shouts, “Cheer, cheer for the Black Prince! Cheer for the hero of Crécy!”

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    James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell (1534 - 1578). King of Scotland in 1567. He was the third husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. After his wife was imprisoned in England he escaped to Norway and was imprisoned and went insane.

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    Catherine of France (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437 was the Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. She was the daughter of King Charles VI of France, wife of Henry V of Monmouth, King of England,[2] mother of Henry VI, King of England and King of France, and through her secret marriage with Owen Tudor, the grandmother of King Henry VII of England. Catherine's older sister, Isabella of Valois, was Queen consort of England from 1396–1399, as the child bride of King Richard II of England.

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    David II (1324 - 1371). King of Scotland from 1329 to his death in 1371. He fled to France in 1333 to escape the war against England. In 1346 he was taken prisoner by the English and did not return to Scotland until 1357. He married twice but had no children. He was the last king of the House of Bruce.

    silver sixpence, reign of Edward VI, 1547-1553

    Mary Tudor, Henry's sister, detail from her marriage portrait to Charles Brandon, 1515

    Joan of Navarre (c. 1370 – 10 June 1437) was a Duchess consort of Brittany and a Queen consort of England. She was the regent of Brittany from 1399 until 1403 during the minority of her son. She was a daughter of King Charles II of Navarre and Joan of France.[1] Her maternal grandparents were John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. Through marriage she was the Duchess consort of Brittany and later the Queen consort of England when she wed King Henry IV of England.

    The Black Prince. (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault as well as father to King Richard II of England.He was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and has more recently been popularly known as the Black Prince. An exceptional military leader, his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime.

    Doublet (c.1580), © Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

    The tympanum displays the achievements of Queen Elizabeth I, depicting the royal arms with a banner on each side. The arms of Anne Boleyn are depicted below, with the date 1587. At the base the Ten Commandments are listed. St Margaret's Church, Norfolk.

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    Katherine and Arthur Capitulations

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    Elizabeth I’s Flushing Toilet. Did you know, that in 1596 Sir John Harington introduced Queen Elizabeth to her first flushing toilet? Sure, flushing toilets have been around since the time of the ancient Minoans, but for the English, they were a new marvel.

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    A lady in armour Jehanne d’Arc (1412-1431), 1485

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