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James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell (1534 - 1578). King of Scotland in 1567. He was the third husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. After his wife was imprisoned in England he escaped to Norway and was imprisoned and went insane.

Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley (1545 - 1567). King of Scotland from 1565 to 1567. He was the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and they had one son. He murdered David Riccio in front of his pregnant wife. He was murdered in 1567 and James Hepburn was involved. His wife married Hepburn soon after.

Catherine of France (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437 was the Queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422. She was the daughter of King Charles VI of France, wife of Henry V of Monmouth, King of England,[2] mother of Henry VI, King of England and King of France, and through her secret marriage with Owen Tudor, the grandmother of King Henry VII of England. Catherine's older sister, Isabella of Valois, was Queen consort of England from 1396–1399, as the child bride of King Richard II of England.

Robert III (1337 - 1406). King of Scotland from 1390 to his death in 1406. He is not remembered as a good king. He married Anabella Drummond and had seven children.

David II (1324 - 1371). King of Scotland from 1329 to his death in 1371. He fled to France in 1333 to escape the war against England. In 1346 he was taken prisoner by the English and did not return to Scotland until 1357. He married twice but had no children. He was the last king of the House of Bruce.

silver sixpence, reign of Edward VI, 1547-1553

Mary Tudor, Henry's sister, detail from her marriage portrait to Charles Brandon, 1515

Joan of Navarre (c. 1370 – 10 June 1437) was a Duchess consort of Brittany and a Queen consort of England. She was the regent of Brittany from 1399 until 1403 during the minority of her son. She was a daughter of King Charles II of Navarre and Joan of France.[1] Her maternal grandparents were John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. Through marriage she was the Duchess consort of Brittany and later the Queen consort of England when she wed King Henry IV of England.

The Black Prince. (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and his wife Philippa of Hainault as well as father to King Richard II of England.He was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and has more recently been popularly known as the Black Prince. An exceptional military leader, his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime.

Doublet (c.1580), © Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The tympanum displays the achievements of Queen Elizabeth I, depicting the royal arms with a banner on each side. The arms of Anne Boleyn are depicted below, with the date 1587. At the base the Ten Commandments are listed. St Margaret's Church, Norfolk.

Excerpt: 'MARGARET POLE, Countess of Salisbury (1473-1541), was daughter of George Plantagenet, duke of Clarence, by his wife Isabel, daughter of Warwick the Kingmaker. She was born at Castle Farley, near Bath, in August 1473, and was married by Henry VII to Sir Richard Pole, son of Sir Geoffrey Pole, whose wife, Edith St. John, was half-sister of the king's mother, Margaret Beaufort.' The last Plantagenet, she was hideously executed May 27,1541. Read More...

King Edward III (1327-1377). House of Plantagenet. 17th great-grandfather of QEII. Reign: 50 yrs, 4 mos, 25 days. Succeeded by grandson, Richard II. In 1330 he had his mother, Isabella imprisoned for life. 1337 began the 100 Years' War with France. Created the Order of the Garter in 1344. In 1350 bubonic plague kills 1/3 of England's population. Improved the monarchy after his father's chaotic reign. Edward III died of a stroke at 64 years old.

Katherine and Arthur Capitulations

1589 Lady Elizabeth Walshe by ? (York Museum - York UK) "Elizabeth Stoner was a lady-in-waiting to each of Henry VIII of England's six wives, and was the 'Mother of the Maids', with responsibility for the conduct of the young maids-of-honour. She was the wife of the King's Sergeant-at-Arms, William Stoner. She is remembered as one of the gaolers of Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII's second wife.

Elizabeth Woodville (also spelled Wydeville or Widvile; c. 1437[1] – 8 June 1492) was Queen consort of England as the spouse of King Edward IV from 1464 until his death in 1483. Elizabeth was a key figure in the series of dynastic civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses. Her first husband, Sir John Grey of Groby was killed at the Second Battle of St Albans. Her children included the Princes in the Tower and Elizabeth of York; the latter made her the maternal grandmother of Henry VIII.

German prosthetic hand from 1580

Anne of Cleves final resting place.

King John (1199-1216). 21st great-grandfather to Queen Eliz II. House of Angevin. Reign: 17 yrs, 6 mos, 13 days. Successor: son, Henry III. The legend of Robin Hood dates from this time in which John is portrayed as Bad King John. He was involved in intrigues against his absent brother, but became king in 1199 when Richard was killed in battle in France. Set repressive policies and taxes to fund war in France. The first written constitution, The Magna Carta, was signed during King John's reign.

Elizabeth I’s Flushing Toilet. Did you know, that in 1596 Sir John Harington introduced Queen Elizabeth to her first flushing toilet? Sure, flushing toilets have been around since the time of the ancient Minoans, but for the English, they were a new marvel.

Mary I & Philip Shilling, 1554 - was the first English coin to bear a double portrait.

A lady in armour Jehanne d’Arc (1412-1431), 1485

Elizabeth I used this great seal during the second half of her reign - from 1586 to 1603. It is an impression from seal matrix made of bronze and was engraved by Nicholas Hilliard, who was famous for his small paintings or miniatures. The matrix was used to create wax impressions that were used to 'seal' documents. This was a means of proving that the accompanying document had been written or approved by the owner of the seal.

Sir William Butts, Born about 1486-Died Nov. 22, 1545. He became court physician about 1524, was Knighted for his services, and stood high in Henry VIII.'s estimation. Butts, in 1540, assured Henry his inability to consummate his marriage with Anne of Cleves was a result of Anne's failure to 'excite and provoke lust in him', and not due to impotence.

Katharine of Aragon (16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536),was Queen consort of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII of England and Princess of Wales as the wife to Arthur, Prince of Wales. In 1507, she also held the position of Ambassador for the Spanish Court in England when her father found himself without one, becoming the first female ambassador in European history.