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    • Elizabeth Shardelow

      JUL 11 1942 ‘Black Sabbath’ for the Jews of Salonika Griechenland, Saloniki. One of a series of images taken by German journalists in Salonika on 11th July 1942.

    • Stephanie Nelson

      Liberation Square, Thessaloniki, Greece, 1942: 9,000 Jewish citizens of the German occupied city are assembled in the Liberation Sq., and are asked to perform gymnastic exercises. The under-performers are doomed.

    • Barbara Taylor

      11 July 1942 - Thessaloniki, Greece, 9000 men of Jewish origin aged 18-45 were ordered by the German occupation army to come to Eleftheria (Freedom) Square to be registered for forced labor. For six hours they were forced to stand in the sun and suffer from abuse and humiliation by the German soldiers. That Saturday was named “Black Sabbath”.

    Tags:
    1942 Black, Thessaloniki Greece, 11Th July, July 1942, Jewish History, Jewish Citizen, 9 000 Jewish, Black Sabbath, German Journalist

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    Thessaloniki, Greece, July 1942: Jewish men awaiting registration for hard labor by order of the German occupation authorities.

    July 1942, Thessaloniki, Greece: Portrait of a young Jewish man being pressed into forced labor by the Germans. By the end of the following year, the entire Jewish population of Thessaloniki had been deported to Auschwitz.

    A German police unit arrived in Olkusz on July 31, 1940, and gathered all the Jewish men in the main square. The Jews were forced to lie on the ground while the policemen and members of the SD registered them. The Germans beat the Jews, shooting one of them. In order to further humiliate them, Rabbi Moshe Yitzhak Hagerman was forced to don his tallith and tefillin (phylacteries) that had been defiled, and to stand barefoot and pray next to the prostrate men of the Jewish community.

    Thessaloniki, Greece, July 1942: Greek Jews are pressed into work gangs by the Germans. Thessaloniki had the largest Jewish community in Greece, some 50,000 strong. Only a handful survived the Holocaust.

    A woman weeps during the deportation of Jews from Ioannina. Greece. on March 25, 1944. The deportation was enforced by the German army. Almost all of the people deported were murdered on or shortly after April 11, 1944, when the train carrying them reached Auschwitz-Birkenau.

    Thessaloniki, Greece, July 1942: A Jewish man awaits registration for hard labor. Those who appeared for registration were forced to wait for hours under a scorching sun while all the while being harassed, beaten, and made to perform calisthenics by the Germans.

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    Thessaloniki, Greece, July 1942: Jewish man on the day all Jewish men were ordered to a city square to be put to hard labor. They were made to wait for hours in the burning sun and perform calisthenics or dance. This was a precursor of sending the entire Jewish population of the city to the death camps. In the background, a neatly uniformed Greek gendarme, wearing sunglasses, watches the proceedings.

    Greece, 1942: German armor arrives by rail for in-country deployment. The Germans left the largest part of the country to the Italians and Bulgarians and reversed Athens, Thessaloniki and a few other locations for themselves. The bulk of the occupying troops was therefore not German, although the Germans undertook almost exclusively, and always brutally, the operations against Greek resistance.

    Greece, 1942-1944. An orthodox priest, member of ELAS (Greek People's Liberation Army), fighting against the German, Italian and Bulgarian occupation forces.

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    Athens,Greece 1942. Photo taken by Voula Papaioannou.(Under German and Axis occupation, death ratio due to famine raised to one of the highest in occupied Europe).