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Willie Vicarage, suffering facial wounds in the Battle of Jutland 1916 Naval Battle was one of the first men to receive facial reconstruction using plastic surgery. Doctor Harold Gillies created the "tubed pedicle" technique that used a flap of skin from the chest or forehead and swung it into place over the face. The flap remained attached but was stitched into a tube, keeping the original blood supply intact and dramatically reducing the infection rate.

John Merrick, aka "The Elephant Man," had a terrifying appearance accompanied by an utterly fascinating life.

Neurofibromatosis (NF): an autosomal dominant genetically-inherited disorder in which the nerve tissue grows tumors. NF type 1 occurs from a mutation of neurofibromin on chromosome 17q11.2. Neurofibromin is a tumor suppressor gene whose function is to inhibit the p21 ras oncoprotein. In absence of this tumor suppressor's inhibitory control on the ras oncoprotein, cellular proliferation is uncontrolled, resulting in unbalanced cellular proliferation and tumor development.

After being diagnosed with leprosy, Tetsuo Sakurai was forced to leave home at the age of 15. He didn't return for more than 60 years. At first, he received treatment in neighboring Hirosaki for 10 months but after he showed no improvement, his parents were obliged to have him quarantined in a sanatorium under Japan's 1907 Leprosy Prevention Law (not repealed until 1996).

'People who don't read history books are unaware that a huge number of "cowboys" driving herds to the railheads in Kansas were Indians. And many don't know that some of "Indians" who raided the drives for beef in the the "nations" were runaway slaves and ex-slaves adopted into the tribes in the Oklahoma territory.