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Leech crawling on the lid of the leech jar at the Apothecary Shop. Devices used for the medical practice of bleeding are in the foreground. 18th Century scene at historic Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, Virginia. Photo by David M. Doody.
Skull that has gone through Trepanning (a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater...) They did this for people who had headaches - probably a migraine sufferer.
Trepanning Drill, 1850 - 1900: Used for neurosurgical procedures which required drilling through the skull. For example aspiration of subdural blood clots after head injury, or the elevation of depressed skull fractures. The centre piece of the bit allow the drill to be centered and once the outer teeth had engaged it would be withdrawn so as to prevent further intracranial injury. The high quality brass and steel bit is is detachable.