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Descartes's Mechanical Philosophy. According to French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650), the universe operated as a continuously running machine which God had set in motion. Since he rejected Newton's theory of gravity and idea of a vacuum in space, Descartes argued that instead the universe was composed of a "subtle matter" he named "plenum," which swirled in vortices like whirlpools and actually moved the planets by contact. Here, these vortices carry the planets around the Sun.

Thomas Wright | An Original Theory or New Hypothesis of the Universe | Plates XXXI and XXXII show the universe filled with many systems like our own, each a star-filled shell surrounding its own "eye of Providence" (1750)

from Etsy

Copernicus 16x20 - Rock Star Cosmic Pioneer Fine Art Astronomer Poster Print - Heliocentric

This print is dedicated to Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish astronomer, physicist, and mathematician born in 1473. He began a scientific revolution with his heliocentric model, placing the Sun at the center of the universe

from Mail Online

Shedding a light on the psyche of war: Zippo lighters from U.S. troops fighting in Vietnam give a unique insight into life under fire

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from Brain Pickings

Ordering the Heavens: A Visual History of Mapping the Universe

from Etsy

Constellation Mural - Large Wall Mural, Space Mural, Graphic Illustration Wallpaper, 100" x 108"