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Castile and Aragon established regional monarchies after 1400, and were united through royal marriage in 1469. They believed that they had a mission to convert or expel Muslims and Jews to maintain doctrinal purity. This is a map that shows the Castile land and Aragon lands.

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Revealed: Signed by 81 noblemen, the threatening letter sent to a Pope 'asking' him to annul Henry VIII's first marriage

Letter sent to Pope Clement VII by Henry VIII (and the 81 noblemen whose seals are affixed) to dissolve his marriage to Katherine of Aragon, 1530

Penshurst Place, Kent - the huge medieval Baron's Hall. This is where Anne of Cleves lived after annulment from her marriage to King Henry VIII. The original medieval house is one of the most complete examples of 14th-century domestic architecture in England surviving in its original location.

Maps website of the Ottoman rule -Early on it was quite small. Then the Ottomans got a lot more land after Mehmed II. After Suleyman II, their land went all the way to Saudi Arabia and took it all. Then they lost most of Saudi Arabia. Then their land went all the way back and into Turkey. Then it went all the way into Europe and almost into Italy and on the top of Africa. The during Mahmud II they went to retreat again. In the end they were smaller than Hungary.

QUIZ QUESTIONS: 1. What accounts for the relative rise of the West? 2. What was the nature of early Western exploration and colonial patterns? 3. Summarize the transitions taking place in world history ca. 1400.

The Black Death, 1348 - Note basic information about the Black Death. Discuss reactions to this disaster. What was the effect of the Black Death on the social order of Europe? -There were 3 kinds, all of which you were pretty much guaranteed to die. 25-50% fell to it.Some would form small communities to keep the plagued away, while others would just walk around and feel sorry for the ill.Many abandoned the cities that they lived in.Women lost their morals, and no one really cared…

Stressed stylistic grace and a concern for a code of behavior for urban gentlemen. Painters were more realistic and introduced perspective. It had little effect outside of Italy and was little concerned with science. Developed Italian commerce and shipping, city-states, and sailors with a goal of further expansion. This is a short article about the trade and commerce during the Renaissance era.

History's Turning Points - AD 1453 Siege of Constantinople ~Write a summary discussing the political,religious,military, economic and social aspects of Constantinople at this time. -Military-There were cannons in which blew down walls.Constantinople was surrounded by Ottoman Turks. Muslims were trying to siege Constantinople.Center of Orthodox Christian church. Economic-Bankrupt and void of loyal people. Social-Rulers were well educated.People of Constantinople were prepared for the…

A rationalist philosopher like Ibn-Rushd in Spain was more influential in Europe than Muslims. Sufis continued their mystical contacts with god. This is a site all about Ibn-Rushd and his life as well as what he did.

From 1100 peasants became serfs agriculture productivity fell. Tax revenues decreased. Middle eastern merchants lost ground to European ones. Islamic decline was gradual. Ottomans were beginning to build on of the most powerful empires. Go to page 498-499 and it describes the muslim's trade and how it built up.

Both Aztec and Inca empires experienced difficulties after 1400. Aztec exploitation of their subject peoples roused resentment and created opportunities for outside intervention. Inca system created tensions between central and local leadership

Prince Henry of Portugal (pictured) reflected many of the key factors then stimulating European expansion. Land grants were given to colonists who brought Western plants, animals, and diseases. Slaves were introduced for crop cultivation.