Letter in Greek, early 3rd century A.D. Roman, Egyptian; from Egypt. Papyrus. The papyrus contains a letter written by Heraclides to his brother Petechois. It is essentially a shopping list of items—poultry, bread, lupines, chick peas, kidney beans, and fenugreek at various prices—that Heraclides wants Petechois to bring him. Such documents provide important evidence for the level of literacy in the Roman world and offer an insight into the everyday lives of ordinary people.
This illuminated and illustrated Arabic manuscript of the Gospels by Matthew (Mattá), Mark (Marquṣ), Luke (Lūqā), and John (Yūḥannā) was copied in Egypt by Ilyās Bāsim Khūrī Bazzī Rāhib, who was most likely a Coptic monk, in Anno Mundi 7192 / 1684 CE. The text is written in naskh in black ink with rubrics in red. The Crucifixion.