Don Miguel de Castro, Emissary of Congo (c. 1643-50, painted by Albert Eckhout). In 1643 or 44, de Castro arrived in the Netherlands as an emissary of the ruler of Sonho, a province of Congo, via Brazil. One objective of the journey was to find a resolution to an internal conflict in Congo. He is shown dressed in high Portuguese fashion, and portraits were also painted of two of his servants/ companions.
Liberated slaves were treated as contraband or captured property at this time. The confiscation act of 1861 allowed seizing Confederate property but did not clarify the fate of captured slaves. One Union general gained notoriety for general order No. 11 which freed all slaves in areas under his control. President Lincoln countermanded this order amid concerns of the political consequences in four slave holding border states that remained in the Union.