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Ferdinand of Aragon (1452-1516) and Isabella of Castile (1451-1504), a reliquary in the Royal Chapel, Capilla Real. Parents of Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII.

Armor made by Pompeo della Cesa, Italian court armorer to Philip II of Spain, for use in tournaments fought on foot over a barrier, 1590 CE, Philadelphia Museum of Art

Isabella of Castile was an example of queenship in the late medieval age. Queen of Castile united the country of Spain with her husband, King Ferdinand II of Aragon as well as fearlessly led her soldiers into battle.

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Madrid

PHILIP III WAS THE SON OF PHILIP II OF SPAIN AND ANNA OF AUSTRIA AND BECAME KING OF SPAIN AFTER HIS FATHER.

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anne and mary boleyn, by Hans Holbein the Younger

Anne Boylen and her sister Mary

Queen Mary I (1553-1558). House of Tudor. Parents: Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. 1st cousin 13 times removed of Queen Elizabeth II. Reign: 5 yrs, 3 mos, 29 days. Successor: 1/2 sister Elizabeth.

Mary Queen of Scots, aged 19, in white mourning to mark the loss of three members of her immediate family within a period of 18 months. Her father-in-law Henry II died in July 1559; her mother Mary of Guise died in Scotland in June 1560; and in December of the same year her husband Francis II died. Mary, no longer Queen of France, returned to Scotland in August 1561. Wearing white was the official sign of mourning worn by women of royal blood or high-ranking courtiers.

The death mask of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. Mary was the great granddaughter of Henry VII, great niece of Henry VIII and cousin to Elizabeth I and Mary Tudor.

A beautiful posthumous painting of Isabel of Castile; Renaissance Queen of Spain along side her husband Ferdinand of Aragon II. Isabel was mother to Juana of Castile & Katharine of Aragon.

Phillip II of Spain is connected to the Tudors in two important ways: (1) He married Mary Tudor, the older sister of Elizabeth I, who is known to history as Bloody Mary. They had no children. Some sources indicate that after Mary died, Phillip had his eye on marrying Elizabeth, but she wouldn't go for it. No wonder -- he wasn't exactly a loving husband to Mary. Then, (2) years later, Phillip sent the Armada to invade England and kick Elizabeth off the throne because she was a heretic (i.e., s...

Queen Isabella I 1451-1504 Together with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon, Queen Isabella I ruled Castile and Aragon. Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the 'New World' led by Christopher Columbus under Isabella's sponsorship.

Lady Jane Grey was a cousin of Elizabeth I. Jane was the granddaughter of Mary Tudor, the sister of Henry VIII, and Charles Brandon, her second husband. When Elizabeth's baby brother, Edward VI, died when he was still a teenager, the next person in line for the throne was Mary, Elizabeth's sister (Bloody Mary). A faction in England, which included Robert Dudley's father, wanted Jane to be the next ruler instead of Mary. They quickly forced Jane to marry Guilford Dudley (brother of the more fa...

Mary Tudor, Queen of England, "Bloody Mary",daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

A portrait of Phillip II (1527-1598), King of Spain. After Anthonis Mor, 1558. Philip's wife Mary I of England died the same year that this portrait was painted.

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