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Mary Tudor, Henry VIII's younger sister, is not to be confused with Mary Tudor, Henry's daughter, who is known as Bloody Mary. Henry's sister was first married to Louis XII of France, much against her will. She was 19 at the time; Louis was 52. He only lived for 3 months after the wedding -- Mary then secretly married Charles Brandon, the Earl of Suffolk -- a close friend of Henry VIII's.

Charlemagne - also known as Charles the Great, was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the European Middle Ages.

Alessandro de Medici, Duke of Penne and Duke of Florence, who was commonly called "il moro," Italian for "The Moor". In his day, he was officially recognized as the son of the powerful Lorenzo II de Medici (1510-1537) and an unknown African woman. Alessandro was the last Medici to rule Florence, having assumed the throne at the young age of 19.

Mary Queen of Scots, aged 19, in white mourning to mark the loss of three members of her immediate family within a period of 18 months. Her father-in-law Henry II died in July 1559; her mother Mary of Guise died in Scotland in June 1560; and in December of the same year her husband Francis II died. Mary, no longer Queen of France, returned to Scotland in August 1561. Wearing white was the official sign of mourning worn by women of royal blood or high-ranking courtiers.

Telegraph.co.ukfrom Telegraph.co.uk

'Exciting discovery' reveals Henry VIII as firm believer in Catholicism

The bede (prayer roll), which has never been publicly exhibited before, was owned and used by Henry VIII when he was Prince of Wales.