Theodosius I – R: 379-395. The last emperor to rule over both Eastern and Western portions of the Empire. Invited by Gratian to be co-Augustus of the Eastern Empire after the death of Valens. Forced to recruit from the barbarians. Defeated usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius. Established the “Catholic Church” as the only religion and ended state support for polytheistic religions. Died sooner than expected and had no time to groom his young sons.
The gastraphetes was a hand-held crossbow used by the Ancient Greeks. It was described in the 1st century AD by the Greek author Heron of Alexandria in his work Belopoeica, which draws on an earlier account of the famous Greek engineer Ctesibius . Heron identifies the gastraphetes as the forerunner of the later catapult. Unlike later Roman and medieval crossbows, spanning the weapon was not done by pulling up the string, but by pushing down an elaborate slider mechanism.
WW1 brought back in use methods and weapons dated as far back ancient times. Here, men of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry (Ox and Bucks LI) using a trench catapult. The catapult was used to launch grenades at enemy trenches, with the distance separating the adversaries being below 100 meters.