Before alarm clocks there were knocker-upper's. Mary Smith earned sixpence a week shooting dried peas at sleeping workers windows. Limehouse Fields. London. . Undated. Photograph from Philip Davies' Lost London: 1870 - 1945.
A Knocker-up (sometimes known as a knocker-upper) was a profession in England and Ireland that started during and lasted well into the Industrial Revolution and at least as late as the 1920s, before alarm clocks were affordable or reliable. A knocker-up’s job was to rouse sleeping people so they could get to work on time. Mary Smith earned sixpence a week shooting dried peas at sleeping workers windows - Photograph from Philip Davies’ Lost London: 1870 - 1945. S)
Back in the 1920's the word "Flapper" was coined to describe to women who danced the latest craze; the Charleston. The term was derived from the movements associated with the dance steps that required that the woman would flap their arms & walk like birds - hence Flappers as in flapping wings of the birds. Although the dance was popularized during the 1920's, the earliest Charleston is believed to have been part of several Harlem (USA) stage shows being recorded as early as 1913.
This photograph of the field hospital at the Battle of Savage Station gives the reader a better view of the conditions of Civil War medicine than can be described in words. Notice that the wounded do not have the benefit of shelter, and are left to suffer in the sun. The number of wounded far exceeds the number available to help with treatment. The injured are doubtlessly suffering not only from their wounds and lack of care, but also from the elements.