Scarification is widely performed across Africa. The practice of incising the skin with a sharp instrument. Cicatrisation is a special form of scarification, whereby a gash is made in the skin with a sharp instrument & irritation of the skin. Dark pigments such as ground charcoal or gunpowder are rubbed in to provide emphasis. These cuts, when healed form keloids. The most complicated cicatrisation was found in the Congo Basin and neighbouring regions, and among the Akan speakers of West Africa.
We all wonder about folks here in North America who get facial tattoos, they rarely enhance beauty but this woman, her traditional tribal tattoos... Damn, beauty upon beauty, very possibly the most joyous and beautiful woman I have ever seen. Fulani woman, Benin Africa
I don’t like people who have never fallen or stumbled. Their virtue is lifeless and of little value. Life hasn’t revealed its beauty to them. ~Boris Pasternak, "Doctor Zhivago"