Young astronomer Laurent V. Joli-Coeur captured a shadow cast by Jupiter. The arrows point to the faint hammer-shaped gnomon of his "Jupiterdial". The 15-year-old was the first person to photograph a shadow cast by our largest planet.
Daguerreotype of the Sun. (Photograph courtesy National Science Foundation, High Altitude Observatory) French physicists Louis Fizeau and Leon Foucault made the first successful photograph of the Sun on April 2, 1845. The original image, taken with an exposure of 1/60th of a second, was about 4.7 inches (12 centimeters) in diameter and captured several sunspots, visible in this reproduction. Mona Evans, "Photography and the Birth of Astrophysics"…
1857 wet collodion photographs of the double star Mizar and its fourth magnitude companion Alcor using the 15-inch (38 cm) ‘Great Harvard’ Refractor. This was the first successful attempt at photographing a double star and more importantly its fainter companion. (Credit: G.P. Bond, J.A. Whipple & J.W. Black)
Hubble's Variable Nebula (NGC 2261.) The first official photograph taken through the 200-inch Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory. The exposure was made by Edwin Hubble from the prime focus observing cage on the night of January 26, 1949. It's a reflection nebula illuminated by a young star known as R Monocerotis (R Mon). Mona Evans, "Palomar Observatory" http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art178826.asp
Hubble's Variable Nebula, taken by Edwin Hubble himself. He was given the honor of making the first observation on the 200" Hale Telescope on Mount Palomar. For nearly half a century it was the world's largest telescope. Mona Evans "Palomar Observatory" http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art178826.asp
First photograph of a solar eclipse. This daguerreotype image was taken of the 1851 eclipse by Berkowski (first name never published) of the Royal Observatory in Königsberg, Prussia. (Public domain image). Mona Evans, "Photography and the Birth of Astrophysics" http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art19545.asp
Crescent Earth and Moon from Voyager 1. It was the first time a spacecraft had pictured both bodies in the same frame. Voyager was 11.66 million kilometers (7.25 million miles) from Earth on 1977-09-18 when this image was taken. (Credit: NASA / JPL)
Photo by Sir John Herschel. 'The Honourable Mrs. Leicester Stanhope,' 1843. An early cyanotype, the photographic process invented by Herschel. Mona Evans, "John Herschel" http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art183381.asp