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14th Century

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Bottle for anti-hysteria water, 1850-1920 - from the foundry at Santa Maria Novella, Florence. The water was taken with a cup of coffee with a third of a cup of water and a little sugar. This created ‘an aromatic drink that calms nervous excitation.’ Monasteries often produced such simple remedies and cures for general sale. In the 1800s, hysteria was a broad diagnosis applied to women with ‘nervous’ conditions.

Trepanation. This "therapy" holds that insanity is caused by demons lurking inside the skull. Boring a hole in the patient’s head creates a door through which the demons can escape, and – viola! – out goes the crazy.

Rejection, Rejected, Reject, Rebound by Louise Bourgeois


Thee whirling chair/bed for treatment of mental illness

From the Dutch edition of De Sade's La nouvelle Justine; ou, Les malheurs de la vertu (c. 1800)

Justine ou les Malheurs de la vertu (edition unknown, c. 1800)

De Sade: original manuscript (found in Bastille) of “The 120 Days of Sodom, or the School of Libertinism” (alternatively The School of Licentiousness)

Manuscrit Marquis de Sade - philosophique, Les Infortunes de la vertu s'allonge et se transforme peu à peu en roman : Justine ou les Malheurs de la vertu sera publié en 1791

The Persecution and Assassination of Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade 1966

CHARENTON - LE - PONT La ville fut également desservies par les navettes fluviales des Bateaux Parisiens Bords de Marne - L'embarcadère.jpg

CHARENTON - LE - PONT Charenton dans les années 1920. La ville était alors desservie par plusieurs lignes de tramway. La rue de St-Mandé.JPG

Charenton (94) - Explosion du 23 juillet 1912 sur le pont.

Charles MERYON French printmaker (b. 1821, Paris, d. 1868, Charenton-le-Pont) The Petit Pont, 1850 Etching, 245 x 185 mm Bibliothиque Nationale, Paris

Eugene Atget - Charenton, vieux moulin - 1915

17th-Century Insanity Mask.

Agnes Richter- asylum embroidery jacket - the linen jacket above was made by Agnes Richter, a seamstress and patient in an Austrian asylum during the late 1800′s. She constructed the jacket from cloth typically used in the institution and embroidered her story onto the jacket.

12th century physician Trepanning woman for pain

The Lady and the Fool

Popular Mode of Curing Insanity! On June 18, 1860, Mrs. Elizabeth Parsons Ware Packard was abducted on her husband’s orders and taken to the insane asylum in Jacksonville, Illinois, where she spent the next three years. After she was released, she wrote profusely. In one volume, "Modern Persecution" or "Insane Asylums Unveiled", she detailed her experiences during that time.

Home Phrenology device

ca. 1875-85, [portrait of psychiatric patient].

Bruegel Tarot - The Fool

Ancient Italian Tarot - The Fool

Leber-Rouen Fool card