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    American Elm Average Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (605 kg/m3) Basic Specific Gravity: .46 Hardness: 830 lbf (3,690 N) Rupture Strength: 11,800 lbf/in2 (81,380 kPa) Elastic Strength: 1,340,000 lbf/in2 (9,240 MPa) Crushing Strength: 5,520 lbf/in2 (38.1 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.2%, Tangential: 9.5%, Volumetric: 14.6%, T/R Ratio: 2.3

    Eastern Arborvitae Average Dried Weight: 22 lbs/ft3 (350 kg/m3) Basic Specific Gravity: .29 Hardness: 320 lbf (1,420 N) Rupture Strength: 6,500 lbf/in2 (44,830 kPa) Elastic Strength: 800,000 lbf/in2 (5,520 MPa) Crushing Strength: 3,960 lbf/in2 (27.3 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 2.2%, Tangential: 4.9%, Volumetric: 7.2%, T/R Ratio: 2.2

    Red Oak Average Dried Weight: 45 lbs/ft3 (725 kg/m3) Basic Specific Gravity: .56 Hardness: 1,290 lbf (5,700 N) Rupture Strength: 14,300 lbf/in2 (98,600 kPa) Elastic Strength: 1,820,000 lbf/in2 (12,500 MPa) Crushing Strength: 6,760 lbf/in2 (46.6 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.0%, Tangential: 8.6%, Volumetric: 13.7%, T/R Ratio: 2.2

    White Ash Average Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (710 kg/m3) Basic Specific Gravity: .55 Hardness: 1,320 lbf (5,870 N) Rupture Strength: 15,000 lbf/in2 (103,450 kPa) Elastic Strength: 1,740,000 lbf/in2 (12,000 MPa) Crushing Strength: 7,410 lbf/in2 (51.1 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 4.9%, Tangential: 7.8%, Volumetric: 13.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.6

    All types of elm dry moderately well with very little degrade or checking. when quartersawn it will have very little warping. the slabs I milled at 4" thick dried at 3 5/8" thick. (The wood becomes very tough and pliable when steamed, and is of value for sleigh runners and for ribs of canoes and skiffs.from another site)

    Throughout history, man has chosen elm when he needed a tough and durable wood. Wheelwrights fashioned wheel hubs from nothing but the rugged elm, and then used it to floor long-lasting wagon beds.Besides being used for bent work, Elm's toughness makes it a preferred wood for wagon and vehicle manufacture, particularly the hubs of wheels. It is especially suited not only because it is relatively hard and tough cross-grained difficult to split. easy to dry, Other uses flooring, sleds,