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Tardigrades (also called water bears) are teeny little animals that can survive in the vacuum of space. They are found pretty much everywhere (not surprising given how virtually indestructible they are).

Not all animals that live in water take oxygen from the water. Sometimes the water is so still and warm that the animals in it come to the surface to breathe air.

from Oddee

10 Transparent Animals

This jellyfish-like animals known as Salps feed on small plants in the water called phytoplankton (marine algae). They are transparent, barrel-shaped animals that can range from one to 10cm in length.

Dark Matter Many marine species can’t be photographed underwater for a variety of different reasons. Some animals are too small, some spend their life burrowed in the seafloor, and some live in the dark depths where nobody can dive.

Megaleledone setebos. A study from the Census of Marine Life show that this unassuming octopus of shallow Antarctic waters is the likely forebear for many diverse species of deep-sea octopuses.

Water bears are able to survive the most extreme environments that would kill almost any other animal. They can take temperatures close to absolute zero and hotter than boiling water, withstand over 1000 times more radiation than humans, can live over a decade without water, endure six times the water pressure in the deepest ocean trench, and even survived in the vacuum of space, making them the only animals to do so.

from NBC News

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This image, taken in 2002, about one mile deep near a huge underwater volcano near Monterey Bay, provided by NOAA shows this strange marine animal, thought to be a new species that has yet to be described or named. It is a type of mollusk, called nudibranch, that sheds its shell early in life.

New biodiversity census: 8.74 million species on earth. Eighty-six percent of all land-dwelling species and 91 percent in the water have yet to be discovered and cataloged by science, according to an estimate published in PLoS Biology by the Census of Marine Life scientists.