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Africa | 'Artificial Deformation - All the women of the Sara tribe have this artificial deformation of the lips as a sign of beauty. The effect is produced by piercing the lips and gradually enlarging the holes by inserting wooden discs, the size of which is increased as the lips get distended' | Image and caption from 'Customs of the World', printed in 1900; photograph by Dr. Kumm

EYES OF THE OMO VALLEY ~ STEVE WALLACE, 58, PHYSICIAN, YUMA, AZ “Visiting the tribes in Ethiopia’s Omo Valley, I stopped at the Omo Child Home ( in Jinka. I noticed this beautiful girl with big eyes looking out from a dark hallway. As I started taking pictures of her, she followed me with her eyes as I took photos from several angles. We did not have a common language, so I gave her no instruction.”-

Effect's of Culture on Women's Healthfrom Effect's of Culture on Women's Health

Lip Plating

The Mursi, Chai and Tirma are some of the last groups in Africa amongst whom it is still the norm for women to wear large pottery or wooden discs or ‘plates’ in their lower lips.

Surma Fighter, Ethiopia. "Muradit, a fierce and renowned Surma stick fighter, paints his face with white chalk to intimidate his enemies at the Donga stick fights. He will fight to prove his masculinity and to win a wife."