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The Code of Hammurabi, the Sixth Babylonian king (1792-1750 BCE), 282 laws. Hammurabi standing before the sun-god Shamash. Originally from Babylon, found at Susa, Iran. One of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world. The Code consists of 282 laws, with scaled punishments, adjusting "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth" (lex talionis) as graded depending on social status, of slave versus free man. Inscribed in the Akkadian language, using cuneiform script.
Copper statue of the Sun God Shamash, dating back to 1700-1600 BCE. Shamash, the Babylonian god of justice, is depicted on the famous Code of Hammurabi. The sun is named after him in Arabic, Hebrew and Syriac. Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY. Photo by Babylon Chronicle
‘The Babylonian World Map, the earliest surviving map of the world (c. 600 BCE), is a symbolic, not a literal representation. It deliberately omits peoples such as the Persians and Egyptians, who were well known to the Babylonians. The area shown is depicted as a circular shape surrounded by water, which fits the religious image of the world in which the Babylonians believed.’