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    • Kerry-Lee

      World War II: Before the War - In Focus - The Atlantic Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, center, hands on hips, with members of the fascist Party, in Rome, Italy, Oct. 28, 1922, following their March on Rome. This march was an act of intimidation, where thousands of fascist blackshirts occupied strategic positions throughout much of Italy. Following the march, King Emanuelle III asked Mussolini to form a new government, clearing the way towards a dictatorship.

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    Brutal Pageantry: Adolf Hitler salutes troops of the Condor Legion who fought alongside Spanish Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War during a rally upon their return to Germany, photographed in color by Hugo Jaeger (1939)

    When Hitler took office, Albert Einstein was on a lecture tour in the United States. He did not return home, and in April 1933 he requested expatriation. The caricature mocks Einstein as a "poor fool" and explains why his request was officially rejected: "The manservant at the German Embassy in Brussels was charged with curing a loitering Asian of the crazy idea that he’s a Prussian." Einstein's German nationality was eventually revoked by way of punitive expatriation on March 24, 1934.

    The Hebron massacre refers to the killing of sixty-seven Jews on 24 August 1929 in Hebron, then part of the British Mandate of Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by false rumors that Jews were massacring Arabs in Jerusalem and seizing control of Muslim holy places. During the massacre, 67 Jews were killed and Jewish homes and synagogues were ransacked; nineteen local Arab families saved 435 Jews by hiding them in their houses at great risk to themselves.

    "Children wrestling outside a Jewish soup kitchen, Berlin. As a result of mounting antisemitism and wide-reaching Nazi racial policies, many middle-class German Jews became impoverished in the 1930s. By retaining aspects of middle-class life, Mittelstand Küchen helped them maintain their pride while benefiting from community assistance." Roman Vishniac. Interwar period.

    Irmgard Huber, chief nurse at Hadamar Institute, poses in the corridor of the euthanasia facility. The euthanasia killings began in Aug 1939 with the murder of disabled infants and toddlers. In addition to the mentally and physically disabled, thousands of others met their end at Hadamar, including healthy Jewish Mischling children (the children of mixed marriages), tubercular Eastern European forced laborers (Ostarbeiter), German geriatric patients, and disabled German soldiers.

    In the early years of Nazi Germany, Hitler ordered the euthanasia program, codenamed Aktion T4, to eliminate those “unworthy of life”. The first series of murders were by starvation, then lethal injection before finally evolving to the gas chamber and cremation. Unlike in the concentration camps doctors, not soldiers, were put in charge of deciding those who were executed. Over 400,000 Germans were sterilized while just about 200,000 were exterminated for having various mental disabilities.

    Viennese Jews are Forced to Scour the Streets (March/April 1938) The Jews who remained in the new Eastern March [Ostmark] quickly fell victim to the anti-Semitic laws that had been in effect in the German Reich since 1933. They were deprived of their political and civil rights, forced out of their professions, and lost their firms and shops in the process of "Aryanization."

    I wonder if anyone reading that newspaper on that day knew what the Anschluss really meant...

    March 21, 1933 ~ Finishing his speech, Hitler walked over to Hindenburg and respectfully bowed before him while taking hold of the old man's hand. The scene was recorded on film and by press photographers from around the world. Precisely the impression Hitler and Goebbels wanted to give to the world, all the while plotting to toss aside Hindenburg and the elected Reichstag.

    On this day, March 7th, 1936, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Pact by sending German military forces into the Rhineland, a demilitarized zone along the Rhine River in western Germany. This marks the beginning of the Nazi nightmare that swept Europe. World War II

    Great picture from 1920 - Adeline Gehrig and Alice Gilenke, US female fencing champions - Gehrig competed in the 1924 Olympics - the first Olympic Games open to women! (Maine Historical Society)

    The dog in The Wizard of Oz was originally supposed to be played by a Dachshund named Otto, however, the studio thought there was still too much post war tenson and replaced Otto with a Norwich terrier. This is one of the original still shots from the movie.

    Hyperinflation in Germany, 1923- People sweeping money in the streets.

    December 5th 1933 - The night they ended Prohibition

    In 1938, nine months before the official beginning of WWII, England opened its borders to around 10,000 children - mostly Jewish - who were fleeing the Nazi regime. The children were sent, without their parents, out of Austria, Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia in a process that became known as Kindertransport. At a time when most Jewish families were prevented from traveling abroad by lack of funds or stringent visa controls, this program was a miracle.

    July 7, 1928 – Sliced bread is sold for the first time by the Chillicothe Baking Company of Chillicothe, Missouri. Learn more... #slicedbread #food

    For Coloreds Only | 1938 Image shows several African American youths hanging out around the stairs leading up to the back entrance of a segregated movie theater showing the Tarzan film, Call of the Savage. Anniston, Alabama, 1937. Peter Sekaer, Photographer.

    Pittsburgh slum dwelling, 1938. Photograph by Arthur Rothstein.

    1931. U.S. Civil Rights protestors demonstrating for fair employment during the Great Depression. Photograph by Ralph A. Ross. Missouri History Museum.

    January 03, 1938...The March of Dimes was established by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to fight polio.

    depression era photograph- her expression and body language are haunting.

    Warsaw, 1939 - German soldiers, (Nazis), searching for and removing anything of value in the abandoned homes of Jews. These Jews had been forcibly relocated to ghettos or were transported to concentration camps.

    A non-aggression treaty known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, was signed between Germany and the Soviet Union, 74 years ago today on Aug. 23, 1939. A secret protocol that divided Eastern Europe into Nazi and Soviet spheres of influence was included in the pact, although the treaty was declared void upon Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.

    Communist youth in Berlin demonstrate on May Day 1931

    Richard Walther Darré speaking at a Reichsnährstand assembly in Goslar, 1937. He was one of the leading Nazi "blood and soil" (German: Blut und Boden) ideologists. He was appointed by Hitler as Reich Minister of Food and Agriculture. He served in that position from 1933 to 1942. After the war, he was briefly imprisoned and was released in 1950. He died 3 years later.